In the name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
THE DAY OF RESURRECTION AND JUDGMENT
All praise is for Allah, the Lord and Cherisher of the universe. May His peace and blessings be upon Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), his household, companions and followers of right guidance till the Day of Judgment. Allah, the Exalted, says:
"I do call to witness the Resurrection Day; And I do call to witness the self-reproaching person (believer). Does man think that We cannot assemble his bones? Nay We are able to put together in perfect order the very tips of his fingers. But man wishes to do wrong (even) in the time in front of him. He questions: "When is the Day of Resurrection?" At length when the sight is dazed. And the moon is buried in darkness. And the sun and moon are joined together. That Day will man say, "Where is the refuge?" By no means! No place of safety!". Suratul Qiyamah (Resurrection) Q75:1-11.
The day of Resurrection and Judgment is very important otherwise faith in Allah and righteous deeds will be meaningless. Similarly, without it, all the disbelievers, tyrants, oppressors and wicked persons of this world will go Scot free, may God forbid bad thing. Many religions/ideologies of the world have different beliefs and understanding about it. In Islam, the belief in the Day of Resurrection/Judgment is one of the articles of faith that every Muslim must believe. Death is certain, and nobody can escape the Judgment of Allah, the Exalted, if he/she cannot escape death. Islam teaches that every person will know whether he/she is a companion of Paradise or Hell-Fire at death, that there is punishment and reward in grave and that every dead person from the time of Adam (PBUH) will remain in their graves or wherever they are placed after their death waiting till the Day of Resurrection. All people will be resurrected at the same time for Judgment. Allah says: "There is no moving creature on earth but its sustenance depends on Allah: He knows the time and place of its temporary deposit: all is in a clear Record". Q11:6
Allah's Apostle (PBUH) said, "When anyone of you dies, he is shown his place both in the morning and in the evening. If he is one of the people of Paradise; he is shown his place in it, and if he is from the people of the Hell-Fire; he is shown his place there in. Then it is said to him, 'This is your place till Allah resurrect you on the Day of Resurrection.' " (Bukhari 2.461)
Aisha (RA) said that a Jewess came to her and mentioned the punishment in the grave, saying to her, "May Allah protect you from the punishment of the grave." 'Aisha then asked Allah's Apostle about the punishment of the grave. He said, "Yes, there is punishment in the grave." 'Aisha added, "After that I never saw Allah's Apostle but seeking refuge with Allah from the punishment in the grave in every prayer he prayed." (Bukhari Hadith 2.454)
Our beloved prophet, Muhammad (PBUH), was reported to have said that the dead body of prophets, pious people and martyrs would not decay in the grave and that there is enjoyment in the grave just as there is punishment in it.
In the Holy Qur'an, the Day of Resurrection/Judgment is referred to as the Day of Gathering (Q64.9), the True Day (Q78:39), the Day of Justice (Q21:47), the Day of Decision (Q77:38), the Day of Sorting out (Q77:13-4) and the Day of Grief and Regrets (Q19:39). Before the Resurrection Day, everything on earth will be destroyed (Q20:105-7) and the heaven and earth will be re-created (Q14:48). The Prophet said, "Between the two blowing of the trumpet there will be forty." The people said, "O Abu Huraira! Forty days?" I refused to reply. They said, "Forty years?" I refused to reply and added: Everything of the human body will decay except the coccyx bone and from that bone Allah will reconstruct the whole body. (Bukhari 6.338)
On the Day of Resurrection, Allah will be the Judge (Q1:4), every person will be confronted with the good and evil he has done (Q3:30), man will flee from his father, mother, wife, brothers, sisters and children because every person will have enough to make him careless of others (Q80:34-7), and there will be settlement of wrong doings. On this Allah's Apostle (PBUH) said, "Whoever has oppressed another person concerning his reputation or anything else, he should beg him to forgive him before the Day of Resurrection when there will be no money (to compensate for wrong deeds), but if he has good deeds, those good deeds will be taken from him according to his oppression which he has done, and if he has no good deeds, the sins of the oppressed person will be loaded on him." (Bukhari 3.629).
Allah, the Exalted, seriously warns mankind in the Holy Qur'an about the sufferings and punishments of the companions of Hell-Fire. He also informs mankind of the rewards and enjoyment in Paradise. "That is the True Day. Therefore, whoever will let him take a (straight) return to his Lord! Verily We have warned you of a Penalty near, the Day when man will see (the Deeds) which his hands have sent forth and the Unbeliever will say "Woe unto me! Would that I were (mere) dust!"" Q78:39-40.
Therefore, those who lay claim to faith but their deeds are contrary should change for better before it is too late. Our beloved prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said that faith is the truth that is established in the heart and all deeds conform to the faith. May Allah safe us from the punishment of the grave and the Hell- Fire (Ameen).
Peace be on you.